In a remarkable testament to ancient medical prowess, a late-Neolithic woman in Southeastern Spain underwent two successful cranial surgeries, defying expectations for Stone Age communities. The trepanations, skillfully performed, targeted the dura mater without causing harm, indicating advanced knowledge.
Despite being a grandmother, she endured two procedures, emphasizing the value placed on life. Recovering and contributing post-surgery, she lived months beyond the second operation, a marvel in a Copper Age community. This extraordinary discovery sheds light on primitive societies’ medical acumen, challenging assumptions about their capabilities.